呈现在这里的诗歌是米沃什1991年出版的英文诗集《省份》中的一部分,《省份》中的诗歌反映了米沃什长久以来试图在人类的尘世生活(《共有》)和他对考查信仰和道德这类哲学问题的责任(《在耶鲁》、《沉思》)之间达成一种平衡。同时,诗人充满了一种自我责任感,要去保存那些对这样的问题作努力探究,但不再具有可疑特权的人们的记忆。(《遥远》、《一张照片》)。

这本集子中的第一首用英语写作的诗歌《和珍妮交谈》,指的是米沃什长久以来的朋友珍妮*荷茨(Jeanne Hersch),一个哲学家、盖奈瓦(University of Geneva)大学的教授,在这首诗歌中,她指出了她以前的老师卡尔*雅斯贝斯的教导。这一假想的交谈发生在瓜德普罗岛(位于拉丁美洲的小安德列斯岛中部),它所具有的繁荣的热带的美对米沃什而言象征着“存在并因此而令我们快乐的这个世界中的事物”。主人公想把自己沉浸在现实世界,从而抛弃他的理性并“消失在无限之中”。但是这种由理性思考而来的自由的渴望(也许只有在死亡中存在这样一种自由,就像诗歌《晚安》中描写的那样)在许多层面上是不足以令人相信的,并且看上去似乎和诗集中相邻的下一首诗《为世纪末所作的诗》是相互矛盾的。在这第二首诗中,主人公描写了他无力阻止自己去寻找人类痛苦的缘由,甚至在二十世纪即将结束之时,“当一切皆善/而罪恶的观念已经消失”。这个说话者无法忘记在这个世纪之初他所目击的悲惨事件,他无法理解那些遗忘地如此轻易的人们,比如在第一首诗歌中的那个人:

阿拉斯,我的记忆
不愿离我而去
在那里,活着的事物
每一个都有它自己的痛苦,
每一个都有它自己的死亡,
它自己的恐惧。
为什么此后,海滩乐园
一片清白,
干净的教堂上
是一个没有瑕疵的天空?
是否因为那些已是在
很久以前?

联系到《和珍妮交谈》和《世纪末所作的诗》在共同的标题〈两首诗〉之下,米沃什承认他的二元论倾向和他试图用一种诗歌的方式呈现这样的矛盾:给予对立的论点双方以同样的份量,创造一种对立事物的综合体。在1987-1988年写的日记〈亨特的一年〉中,米沃什解释说:

就翻译了下来。

呈现在这里的诗歌是米沃什1991年出版的英文诗集《省份》中的一部分,《省份》中的诗歌反映了米沃什长久以来试图在人类的尘世生活(《共有》)和他对考查信仰和道德这类哲学问题的责任(《在耶鲁》、《沉思》)之间达成一种平衡。同时,诗人充满了一种自我责任感,要去保存那些对这样的问题作努力探究,但不再具有可疑特权的人们的记忆。(《遥远》、《一张照片》)。

这本集子中的第一首用英语写作的诗歌《和珍妮交谈》,指的是米沃什长久以来的朋友珍妮*荷茨(Jeanne Hersch),一个哲学家、盖奈瓦(University of Geneva)大学的教授,在这首诗歌中,她指出了她以前的老师卡尔*雅斯贝斯的教导。这一假想的交谈发生在瓜德普罗岛(位于拉丁美洲的小安德列斯岛中部),它所具有的繁荣的热带的美对米沃什而言象征着“存在并因此而令我们快乐的这个世界中的事物”。主人公想把自己沉浸在现实世界,从而抛弃他的理性并“消失在无限之中”。但是这种由理性思考而来的自由的渴望(也许只有在死亡中存在这样一种自由,就像诗歌《晚安》中描写的那样)在许多层面上是不足以令人相信的,并且看上去似乎和诗集中相邻的下一首诗《为世纪末所作的诗》是相互矛盾的。在这第二首诗中,主人公描写了他无力阻止自己去寻找人类痛苦的缘由,甚至在二十世纪即将结束之时,“当一切皆善/而罪恶的观念已经消失”。这个说话者无法忘记在这个世纪之初他所目击的悲惨事件,他无法理解那些遗忘地如此轻易的人们,比如在第一首诗歌中的那个人:

阿拉斯,我的记忆
不愿离我而去
在那里,活着的事物
每一个都有它自己的痛苦,
每一个都有它自己的死亡,
它自己的恐惧。
为什么此后,海滩乐园
一片清白,
干净的教堂上
是一个没有瑕疵的天空?
是否因为那些已是在
很久以前?

联系到《和珍妮交谈》和《世纪末所作的诗》在共同的标题〈两首诗〉之下,米沃什承认他的二元论倾向和他试图用一种诗歌的方式呈现这样的矛盾:给予对立的论点双方以同样的份量,创造一种对立事物的综合体。在1987-1988年写的日记〈亨特的一年〉中,米沃什解释说:

批评家们已经找到了这一问题的答案:是什么导致我诗歌中所有的矛盾?在我的散文中同样如此。我会告诉他们,在我内心同时存在几个不同的自我,我试图去抑制他们,但总得说来没有成功。我不想那么易变,但我能做什么呢?我希望这日记……能被看成是我意识到我不同自我互不相容的一个证据。

米沃什晚年多产,出版了几本散文集,其中部分能从英文版找到,最早的是《我的街道》(1991),他也写了大量评论文章和一本有关他1991年回到立陶宛之后的诗歌选集《面对河流》(1995),他最近的书包括一本随想和韵文方面的集子《路边的狗》(1997),并因此获得了1998年波兰胜利女神文学奖;罗伯特*哈斯对这本书的英文译本也于1998年由法勒、斯特劳斯和吉罗克斯出版。米沃什还出版了两卷文论集,《米沃什词典》(1997和1998),很明显的以一种叫阿柏卡德罗的波兰文体写就(以个人生活中的人物、地方、和事件作为条目,用字母排序的文体)。

The poems presented here are a part of the collection Provinces, published in English in 1991. The poems in Provinces reflect Milosz's constant effort to achieve a balance between the sensual life of man (as in "In Common") and his responsibility to examine philosophical questions of faith and morality (as in "At Yale" and "Meditation"). At the same time, the poet fulfills his self-ascribed duty to preserve the memory of those who no longer have the dubious privilege of struggling with such questions (as in "Far Away" and "A Photograph").

The first poem in English in this archive, "Conversation With Jeanne," refers to Milosz's longtime friend Jeanne Hersch, a philosopher and professor at the University of Geneva who, in the poem, represents the teachings of Karl Jaspers, her former teacher. The lush tropical beauty of Guadeloupe, where the imagined conversation takes place, signifies for Milosz the "things of this world, which exist and, for that reason, delight us." The persona wants to immerse himself in the world, to abandon his reason and "disappear in the immense." This desire for freedom from rational thought (a freedom possible only in death, as described in the poem "Good Night") is unconvincing on many levels, however, and is seemingly contradicted by the linking of this poem with the next, "Poem for the End of the Century." In the second poem, the persona describes his inability to stop himself from searching for a reason for the suffering of man, even at the end of the twentieth century, "when everything was fine / And the notion of sin had vanished." The speaker is incapable of forgetting the horrors he witnessed at the beginning of the century and cannot comprehend those, such as the man in the first poem, who forget so easily:

Alas, my memory
Does not want to leave me
And in it, live beings
Each with its own pain,
Each with its own dying,
Its own trepidation.
Why then, innocence
On paradisal beaches,
An impeccable sky
Over the church of hygiene?
Is it because that
Was long ago?

In linking "Conversation With Jeanne" and "Poem for the End of the Century" under the heading "Two Poems," Milosz acknowledges his tendency toward dualism and demonstrates his striving toward a poetic representation of such contradictions that gives equal weight to both sides of every argument, creating a syzygy of opposites. As Milosz explains in A Year of the Hunter (1994), a diary kept from 1987 to 1988:

Critics have sought an answer to the question: what is the source of all those contradictions in my poetry? In my prose, too, for that matter. I could enlighten them by referring to the several personalities who reside in me simultaneously, whom I have tried to suppress, generally without success. I didn't want to be so volatile, but what could I do? I hope that this diary... will be valued as one more attempt at demonstrating that I was conscious of the incompatibility of my various personalites.

Milosz has been most prolific in his twilight years, publishing several collections of essays, some of which are available in the English volume Beginning With My Streets, (1991). He has also written numerous critical works and a collection of poetry about his 1991 return to Lithuania, Facing the River (1995). His most recent books include a collection of occasional thoughts and verse, Roadside Dog (1997), for which he was awarded the 1998 Polish Nike Literary Prize; Robert Haas's English translation of the volume was published by Farrar, Straus and Giroux, also in 1998. Milosz has also published two volumes of a memoir, Milosz's Alphabet (1997 and 1998), written in a distinctly Polish genre called abecadlo (an alphabetical arrangement of entries on people, places, and events from an individual's life).