最近在看一本据说相当好的书,刚开始看,虽然体会好不深,倒也确实发现了一些亮点,摘录在此,待读完此书,一并发布。

没写过此类文章,不知道格式应该如何,姑且就写成这样了。

此作者大词帝啊……各种查字典

括号中斜体为根据上下文补充的内容

Advice to a Young Scientist by
P. B. Medawar

"The important thing is the inclination to get at the truth of
matters
as far as he is able and to take the steps
that will make it reasonably likely he will do so." pp. 3

"People who believe themselves cut out for a scientific life are sometimes
dismayed and depressed by, in Sir Francis Bacon's words,'The subtility of
nature, the secret recess of truth, the obscurity of things, the difficulty of
experiment, the implication of causes and the infirmity of man's discerning
power, being men no longer excited, either our of desire or hop, to penetrate
father'" pp. 6

"...they should have more than one string to their bow and
should be willing to take no for an answer if the evidence
points that way." pp. 6

"...once he has felt that deeper and more expansive feeling
Freud has called the 'oceanic feeling' that is the reward for any real
advancement of the understanding--then he is hooked and no other kind of
life will do
." pp. 7

"It is not the knowledge itself (that brings relief) , but the
satisfaction of knowing that something is known." pp. 8

"...application, diligence, a sense of purpose, the power to concentrate, to
persevere and not be cast down by adversity..." pp. 8

"A trait surely incompatible with a scientific career is to
regard manual work as undignified or inferior, or to believe
that a scientist has achieved success only when he packs away test tubes and
culture dishes, turns off the Bunsen burner, and sits at a desk dressed in
collar and tie." pp. 11

"...the experimentation is a form of thinking as well as a
practical expression of thought." pp. 11

"...any scientist of any age who wants to make important discoveries must
study important problems...it is not enough that a problem should be
'interesting'--almost any problem is interesting if it is studied in sufficient
depth." pp. 13

"The problem must be such that it matters what the answers
is
--whether to science generally or to mankind." pp. 13

"...easy and tempting tough it is to tie up loose ends and wander down
attractive byways." pp. 14

"...we always need to know and understand a great deal more
than we do already and to master many more skills than we now
possess." pp. 16

"... it is easier for a collegue to help a novice than to think up excuses
for not doing so." pp. 17

"It is psychologically most important to get results, even
if they are not original." pp. 17

"I do not know any scientist of any age who does not exult in the opportunity
contiunous to learn." pp. 17

"...they prosper who are energetic, intelligent, ‘dedicated’and
hardworking
,but languish who are lazy, unimaginative, or dull." pp.
20

"...any such tendency (as citing Madame Curie as evidence) to
generalize from isolated instances will convince no
one
that they have a natural aptitude for science." pp. 21

"Regional differences (of scientific proficiency) are
intrinsically unlikely for methodological reasons, and no experienced scientist
seriously believes that they exist." pp . 24

"If, as I believe, scientific inquiry is an enormous potention of
common sense, then the absence of any important national
differences in the ability to 'do' science may be thought to uphold Descartes's
contention that common sense is the most equitably distributed of all human
gifts." pp. 27

"Scientists naturally want to be thought well of and, like
other professional men, would like their calling to be respected." pp. 28

"There is no quicker way for a scientist to bring discredit
upon himself and on his profssion than roundly to declare--particularly when no
declartion of any kind is called for--that science knows or soon will
know the answers to all questions worth asking
, and that the questions
that donot admit a scientific answer ar in some way nonquestions or
'pseudoquestions' that only simpletons ask and only the gullible profess to be
able to answer." pp. 31

"If a scientist has reason to believe that a research enterprise cannot but
promote the discovery of a nastier or more expeditious quietus for mankind, then
he must not enter upon it--unless he is in favor of such a
course of action." pp. 37

"Any scientist who is reasonably inventive and imaginative is certain
to make mistakes
over matters of interpretation..." pp. 37

"If in spite of the most anxious precautions a scientist makes a mistake
about a matter of fact--...--then the mistake must be admitted with the
least possible delay
. Human nature is such that the scientist
may even gain credit from such a declaration and will
not lose face
--except perhaps in the bathroom mirror." pp. 38

"...the intensity of the conviction
that a hypothesis is true
has no bearing on whether it is true or
not." pp. 39

"A scientist who habitually deceives himself is well on the way toward
deceiving others." pp. 39

"A scientist's or other research worker's need for
tranquillity
makes him sound dreadfully dull and
pitifully
unlike the stereotype of the creative artist of
nineteenth-century romantic fiction--la vie de Bohème and all that." pp. 40

"...the only sense of ownership a scientist can ever enjoy is tha of having
been the first to have an idea..." pp. 42

"A scientist who is too cagey or suspicious to tell his colleagues anything
will soon find that he himself learns nothing in return." pp.
42

"Such a class distinction is particularly offensive because
it is based upon a complete misconception of the original
meaning of the word pure--the meaning that was thought to confer a loftier
status upon pure tha nupon applied science." pp. 45

"Considered as a motive force that helps to get things done, ambition is not
necessarily a deadly sin, but excess of ambition can certainly be a
disfigurement." pp. 52

"No working scientist ever thinks of himself as old, and so long as health,
rules of retirement, and fortune allow him to continue with research, he enjoys
the young scientist's privilege of feeling himself born anew every
morning
." pp. 52

"Nor should the young attempt to ingratiate themselves with their
seniors..." pp. 55

"Look not for success to favour, partiality, and friendship or to what is
called interest: write it upon your heart, that you will depend solely on your
merit and your own exertions." pp. 55

"...people with anything to say can usually say it
briefly
..." pp. 61

"...experiments are very often designed not in such a way as to prove
anything to be true--a hopelesse endeavor--but rather to refute a 'null
hypothesis'." pp. 71

"...if an experiement is not worth doing, it is not worth doing well."
pp. 75

"...a young scientist can only hope that his work will be good
enough
for him to take his place one day among the candidature for such
distinctions." pp. 80

"The truth is not in nature waiting to declare itself, and
we cannot know a priori which observations are relevant and
which are not; every dicovery, every enlargement of the understanding begins as
an imaginative preconception of what the truth might be." pp.
84

"...experiments are th acts undertaken to test a
hypothesis." pp. 84

"...almost all laws and hypotheses can be read in such a way as to
prohibit the occurrence of certain phenomena." pp. 85

"Scientific statements were verifiable in fact or in
principle..." pp. 88

"Ces hasards ne sont que pour ceux qui jouent bien!" pp.
90

"..the evaluation of ahypothesis is not a private transaction between the
scientist and reality--a competition, as it were, between fact and
fancy
." pp. 91

"...criticism is the most powerful weapon in any methodology
of science..." pp. 94

"Young scientists mus however never be tempted into mistaking the
necessity of reason for the sufficiency of
reason
." pp. 101